I. History of the Automobile

I. History of the Automobile

Karl Benz and his wife

The first usable automobiles with gasoline-/petrol-powered internal combustion engines are usually thought to have been created nearly simultaneously by multiple inventors in Germany, all working independently: Karl Benz built his first automobile in 1885 in Mannheim and was granted a patent for his automobile on 29 January 1886. He began the first production ever of automobiles in 1888, after Bertha Benz, his wife, had confirmed – with the first long-distance trip by automobile, in August 1888, from Mannheim to Pforzheim and back – that the horseless coach was suitable for everyday use.

  • Karl Friedrich Benz, German engine designer and automobile engineer, was born on 25 November 1844.
  • On 20 July 1872, Karl Benz married Bertha Ringer.
  • On 28 June 1926, Benz & Cie. and DMG combined to create the Daimler-Benz company, naming all of its automobiles Mercedes-Benz, in honour of the most important model of the DMG automobiles: the Mercedes 35 hp from 1902, with the added Benz surname.
Karl Benz's transit heliohoroscope chart for the day of his marriage to Bertha Ringer.
1. Karl Benz’s transit heliohoroscope chart for the day of his marriage to Bertha Ringer: an exact Venus reunion with a solar line to transit Earth.
Karl Benz's transit heliohoroscope chart for the day of the patent granting.
2. Karl Benz’s transit heliohoroscope chart for the day of the patent granting: an exact Mars—Mars solar line and a Mercury—Venus—Earth line.
3. Karl Benz’s transit heliohoroscope chart for the day of creation of the Daimler-Benz company: a Mercury reunion with a solar line to Venus.

Daimler, Maybach and the Mercedes brand

In Stuttgart in 1889, Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach designed a vehicle intended as an automobile. They are usually also credited with inventing the first motorcycle, which was done in 1886. Daimler and his lifelong business partner Wilhelm Maybach were two inventors whose goal was to create small, high-speed engines to be mounted in any kind of locomotion device. In 1883 they designed a horizontal cylinder layout compressed charge liquid petroleum engine that fulfilled Daimler’s desire for a high speed engine which could be throttled, making it useful in transportation applications. This engine was called Daimler’s Dream. In 1890, they converted their partnership into a stock company Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft (DMG).

Emil Jellinek—who later became known as Emil Jellinek-Mercedes—was a European automobile entrepreneur, with Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft (‘DMG’). In 1900, Jellinek introduced the first ‘modern’ car, the Mercedes 35hp. In 1902 he created the Mercedes trademark and gave the cars the same name as his daughter. The trademark later developed into the term Mercedes-Benz and is now one of the most well-known car brands in the world.

His first daughter, Mércédès Jellinek, was born in Baden on September 16, 1889; the name Mercédès means “pardon,” “kindness,” “favour,” or “mercy” in Spanish. Jellinek came to believe that the name brought good fortune, which was why he dubbed all of his properties after it. A son of his even wrote as follows, regarding his father’s beliefs: He was as superstitious as the ancient Romans.

Jellinek acquired a large mansion which he named Villa Mercedes to run the business from, and by 1897 he was selling approximately 140 cars a year, which were by him all referred to as Mercedes. His automobile manufacturing business eventually became more profitable than his insurance work.

In 1899, Jellinek entered his cars in all of them. It wasn’t unusual to use pseudonyms at the time, and Jellinek ended up calling his race-team Mercedes, the name visibly written on the cars’ chassis. Monsieur Mercedes became his personal alias and he was known by this name in the region where he lived.

In Vienna, June 1903, at the age of 50, he changed his last name to Jellinek-Mercedes, stating: “This is probably the first time that a father has taken his daughter’s name.” From then on, he always signed his name as E.J. Mercédès.

  • Gottlieb Daimler was born on 17 March 1834
  • Wilhelm Maybach was born on 9 February 1846
  • Emil Jellinek was born on 6 April 1853
  • Mercedes Jellinek was born on 16 September 1889
The composite heliohoroscope chart for Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach.
4. The composite heliohoroscope chart for Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach. Three planetary unions: Mercury, Venus and Mars.
The composite heliohoroscope chart for Emil Jellinek and Mercedes Jellinek
5. The composite heliohoroscope chart for Emil Jellinek and Mercedes Jellinek: a Venus union with a solar line to a Mercury union, an Earth—Mercury—Mars line, and a Mercury—Jupiter solar line.

Billy Durant and General Motors

William Crapo “Billy” Durant was considered a pioneer of the automobile industry in the US. He was the founder of Frigidaire, and created the system of multi-brand holding companies with different lines of cars and was the co-founder of both General Motors, together with Frederic L. Smith, as well as Chevrolet with Louis Chevrolet.

On September 16, 1908, Durant founded General Motors Holding Company. Durant traded McLaughlin $500,00 in Buick stock for the same amount in McLaughlin stock, making McLaughlin one of the biggest shareholders of General Motors. That same year, General Motors purchased both Buick and Oldsmobile, before starting an automobile conglomeration on a major scale. In 1909, Durant bought Cadillac and Oakland, later called Pontiac, and many companies in parts-manufacturing, paint and varnish companies, axle and wheel companies, and so on, successfully merging them all with GM.

Durant eventually became financially overextended in 1910 and banking interests took control, forcing him to abandon his management of GM Holding. Promptly, he opted to create a new “GM”, starting with the Little car, which was named after its founder, William H. Little. His intended to compete with the Ford Model T, propelled by its looming popularity. However, as he became unsatisfied with this approach, he abandoned it and went into partnership with Louis Chevrolet in 1911. After obtaining a loan of $52,935.25 on September 30, 1910, in Canada, he cosigned by R S McLaughlin, to finally found the Chevrolet company.

On September 3 1921, Durant established a new company: Durant Motors. This was originally with one single brand. Within two years, however, it had a variety of marques, including the Durant, Star (also called Rugby), Flint, and Eagle, competing against the variety offered by General Motors. A factory was also established in Leaside, Ontario, for Canadian production.

Colonel Robert Samuel McLaughlin, CC, ED, CD was an influential philanthropist and businessman from Canada. In 1907, he started the McLaughlin Motor Car Company, one of the first big automobile manufacturers in the country, which later developed into General Motors of Canada.

He established The McLaughlin Motor Car Company and produced the McLaughlin-Buick Model F with Buick engines. The company produced 154 cars in its first year of operation in 1908.

GM’s co-founder was Charles Stewart Mott, whose carriage company Buick merged with, preceding the creation of GM. Mott would become the largest single stockholder in GM over the next few years, and spent his life with his Mott Foundation, which benefited his adopted home, Flint.

  • Billy Durant was born on 8 December 1861
  • Frederic Smith was born 6 February 1870
  • Louis Chevrolet was born on 25 December 1878
  • Durant founded General Motors Holding Company on 16 September 1908
  • Robert McLaughlin was born on 8 September 1871
  • McLaughlin established the McLaughlin Motor Car Company on 20 November 1907
  • Billy Durant established his new company on 3 September 1921
  • Charles Mott was born on 2 June 1875
The composite heliohoroscope chart for Billy Durant and Frederic Smith
6. The composite heliohoroscope chart for Billy Durant and Frederic Smith: a Venus union and two lines.
The composite heliohoroscope chart for Billy Durant and Louis Chevrolet
7. The composite heliohoroscope chart for Billy Durant and Louis Chevrolet: an Earth—Earth solar line and a Mercury—Venus—Mars line.
The transit heliohoroscope chart for Billy Durant on the day he founded his company
8. The transit heliohoroscope chart for Billy Durant on the day he founded General Motors: an alignment of two lines including his natal Mars, Mercury, Venus, and transit Mercury and Venus.
The transit heliohoroscope chart for McLaughlin on the day he founded his company
9. The transit heliohoroscope chart for McLaughlin on the day he founded his company: an Earth reunion with a line to Mars, and a Venus—Mercury—Venus—Earth line.
The transit heliohoroscope chart for Billy Durant on the day he founded his second company
10. The transit heliohoroscope chart for Billy Durant on the day he founded his second company: a Mercury reunion with a line to Mars, and a Jupiter reunion.
The transit heliohoroscope chart for Charles Mott on the day of the GM foundation
11. The transit heliohoroscope chart for Charles Mott on the day of the GM foundation: a Venus reunion and a great line of Mars—Earth—Mercury—Mercury—Mars.

BMW

One of the three men who founded BMW AG was Franz Josef Popp. He was also the First General Director of BMW AG, 1922-1942.

It’s not always clear who was really the founders of BMW AG, but Popp was definitely a primary force in the development of the company as we know it today; as the “General Director” (up until he was forced to forgo his position in 1942,) Popp is often considered responsible for the birth and growth of the company. Had he, Gustav Otto, Max Friz or Camillo Castiglioni been absent, the company may have never even existed.

Camillo Castiglioni was an Italian-Austrian financier and banker, and was, at the time of the first world war, the wealthiest man in Central Europe. He was active in the pioneering days of aviation and invested in the arts. Castiglioni was also often nicknamed “Austrian Stinnes.”

Castiglioni became a significant influence in the development of BMW AG in its early days. In 1917, Castiglioni was partially responsible for a license agreement grant by Austro-Daimler to the Rapp-Werke and, in 1918, at his insistence, the Wiener Bankverein received the majority of BMW’s share capital. Castiglioni also bought all the equipment related to engine construction, the associated know-how and the rights to the name “Bayerische Motoren Werke AG” from the BMW AG, which they then renamed Suddeutsche Bremse AG. Subsequently, Castiglioni renamed the Bayerische Flugzeugwerke to BMW AG and made sure the company was able to continue production at the BFW plant. He became a member of the Supervisory Board and the President of BMW AG on November 9th, 1922.

Karl Friedrich Rapp was founder and owner of the Rapp Motorenwerke GmbH as well as an indirect founder of BMW AG (as acknowledged by the company itself.) The Rapp Motorenwerke GmbH was actually the company that would, in time, become BMW AG.

With a capital stock of RM 200.000, Karl Rapp and Julius Auspitzer founded Karl Rapp Motorenwerke GmbH on 28 October 1913 on the site of Flugwerke Deutschland, after said company went into liquidation. The company’s sole shareholder at the time was General Consul Auspitzer, with Karl Rapp managing the operational side of the company.

Max Friz was a mechanical engineer from Germany, who specialised in engine design. It was thanks to him that the Bayerische Motoren Werke AG, or BMW, would be founded in 1917, and he is considered one of the foremost contributors to engine design and innovation. 

In 1916, the young Max Friz—at the time working for the Daimler company in Unterturkheim—applied to Rapp Motorenwerke. Discontented by the Daimler company’s chief engineer Paul Daimler continuously ignoring of the young Friz’ suggestions on engine development, he recalled his former colleague Karl Rapp and applied for a position at his company. Rapp originally considered dismissing the request from Friz but changed his mind after the interference of Josef Popp, who reasoned that Rapp Motorenwerke was in dire need of an adept designer.

Gustav Otto was a German aircraft engine designer, manufacturer and the founder of many aircraft-building companies. His first company position was recorded in the Munich Company Register on 15 March 1911, under the number 14/364: “Gustav Otto in Munich, Flugmaschinenfabrik (aircraft factory), Office Karlstrasse 72.”

Otto was eventually forced to resign from the business and was offered a buyout to compensate for the business and Otto’s medical bills. On February 19, 1916, the assets were finally overtaken by a consortium that integrated them with Bayerische Flugzeugwerke.

  • Franz Popp was born on 14 January 1886
  • Camillo Castiglioni was born on 22 October 1879
  • Karl Rapp was born 24 September 1882 and he founded his company on 28 October 1913
  • Max Friz was born on 1 October 1883
  • Gustav Otto was born on 12 January 1883 and he founded his company on 15 March 1911
The composite heliohoroscope chart for Camillo Castiglioni and Franz Popp
12. The composite heliohoroscope chart for Camillo Castiglioni and Franz Popp: an Earth union and a Mercury—Mars solar line.
The transit heliohoroscope chart for Karl Rapp on the day he founded his company
13. The transit heliohoroscope chart for Karl Rapp on the day he founded his company: a Mercury reunion with a line to Mars.
The composite heliohoroscope chart for Max Friz and Karl Rapp
14. The composite heliohoroscope chart for Max Friz and Karl Rapp: an Earth union with two lines, a solar one to Venus and Earth—Mercury—Mars.
The transit heliohoroscope chart for Gustav Otto and the date of the future BMW foundation
15. The transit heliohoroscope chart for Gustav Otto and the date of the future BMW foundation: an exact Venus reunion.
The transit heliohoroscope chart for Gustav Otto on the day of his company's registration
16. The transit heliohoroscope chart for Gustav Otto on the day of his company’s registration: an exact Mercury reunion.

Henry Ford

Henry Ford was the founder of the Ford Motor Company, an American industrialist, and sponsor of the development of the assembly line technique of mass production.

Ford and Clara Jane Bryant married in 1888, and he supported his family by farming and running a sawmill. Edsel Ford was their only child, born in 1893.

While Ford did not invent the automobile nor the assembly line, he did develop and manufacture the first automobile affordable to middle-class US citizens. By doing so, Ford turned the automobile from a luxury item to a practical means of transportation that would have a great impact on the landscape of the 20th Century. His introducing the Model T automobile came to revolutionize transportation and the industry in North America. As the owner of the Ford Motor Company, he soon became one of the richest and most famous people in the world. He is also responsible for the origin of the term “Fordism,” which refers to the mass production of inexpensive goods combined with high worker wages. Ford believed consumerism to be the key to global peace. A multitude of technical and business-related innovations came about due to the intense commitment to systematically lowering costs that Ford had. Among others, a franchise system that put dealerships throughout most of North America and in big cities around the globe. The Ford Foundation received most of his wealth after Ford’s passing, and he arranged permanent control over the company for his family.

In October 1901, Ford designed, built and raced a 26-horsepower automobile with the help of C. Harold Wills. Due to this achievement, Murphy and other stockholders in the Detroit Automobile Company formed the Henry Ford Company. This was done on November 30, 1901, with Ford as the chief engineer. Murphy brought in Henry M. Leland as a consultant in 1902. Ford, in response, left the company. Now that Ford had left the picture, Murphy decided to rename the company the Cadillac Automobile Company.

On June 16, 1903, Ford & Malcomson was remade into the Ford Motor Company with $28,000 capital.

Introduced on October 1, 1908, The Model T would come to influence the car-manufacturing industry, having a left-sided steering wheel, which was soon copied by all other companies. In addition to this, the engine and transmission were enclosed, the four cylinders were cast in one solid block and the suspension had two semi-elliptic springs. It was an easy car to drive, and equally easy and cheap to repair. In fact, the Model T was so cheap—cashing in at $825 in 1908 ($21,990 today)—that by the 1920s, most drivers in the US had learnt to drive using The Model T.

Henry Fords personal secretary and business representative was Ernest G. Liebold. In 1918, he purchased The Dearborn Independent—a weekly newspaper—for Ford. The newspaper ran from 1920 until 1927, with Liebold as its editor. From then on, all Ford franchise across the nation had to have the paper and hand it out to customers.

Childe Harold Wills, also known as C. Harold Wills, was an associate of Henry Ford in his earlier days, as well as one of the first to work for the Ford Motor Company. He began his own automobile company after parting from Ford, but in the end, the company was unsuccessful.

Wills was also a key contributor to the design of the Model T. He designed the planetary transmission that was used in the Model T and the detachable cylinder head, as well as the calligraphy of the script “Ford” logo that is still in use today, since Wills took great interest in commercial art and calligraphy.

  • Henry Ford was born on 30 July 1863
  • Clara Jane Bryant was born on 11 April 1866 and she married Ford on 11 April 1888
  • Henry Ford Company was established on 30 November 1901
  • Ford Motor Company was founded on 16 June 1903
  • Ford introduced Model T on 1 October 1908
  • Henry Leland was born on 16 February 1843
  • Ernest Liebold was born on 16 March 1884
  • Childe Harold Wills was born on 1 June 1878
The transit heliohoroscope chart for Clara Jane Bryant on the day of her marriage to Ford
17. The transit heliohoroscope chart for Clara Jane Bryant on the day of her marriage to Ford: a Venus reunion.
The transit heliohoroscope chart for Henry Ford on the day he founded his first company
18. The transit heliohoroscope chart for Henry Ford on the day he founded his first company: a Venus reunion and a Mercury—Mercury—Mars line.
The transit heliohoroscope chart for Henry Ford on the day of Ford Motor founding
19. The transit heliohoroscope chart for Henry Ford on the day of Ford Motor founding: an exact Venus—Venus solar line and an exact Mercury—Mars solar line.
The transit heliohoroscope chart for Henry Ford when he introduced Model T
20. The transit heliohoroscope chart for Henry Ford when he introduced Model T: a Mercury reunion with a line to Venus.
The composite heliohoroscope chart for Henry Ford and Henry Leland
21. The composite heliohoroscope chart for Henry Ford and Henry Leland: an alignment of three lines including almost all the planets in the chart.
The transit heliohoroscope chart for Henry Ford and Ernest Liebold
22. The composite heliohoroscope chart for Henry Ford and Ernest Liebold: an alignment of three lines, two of which are solar.
The transit heliohoroscope chart for Henry Ford and Harold Wills
23. The composite heliohoroscope chart for Henry Ford and Harold Wills: a Mercury—Mercury—Venus—Mars line and an exact Earth—Mercury—Jupiter solar line.

Henry Leland

Henry Martyn Leland was a US machinist, inventor, engineer and automotive entrepreneur. Leland was the founder of the American luxury automotive marques Cadillac and Lincoln.

Cadillac was what became of the ashes of the Henry Ford Company. In March 1902, Henry Ford got into conflict with his investors and subsequently left the company together with several of his partners. Henry M. Leland from Leland & Faulconer Manufacturing Company was then called in by Ford’s financial backers William Murphy and Lemuel to assess the plant and equipment in preparation for liquidating the company’s assets. However, Leland managed to assure Murphy and Lemuel to keep manufacturing automobiles with the help of his single-cylinder engine. Hence, the new company, called Cadillac Automobile, was formed on 22 August 1902, still using the factory at Cass Street and Amsterdam Avenue that had once belonged to the Ford company. The name derives from the French explorer Antoine Laumet de La Mothe, Sieur de Cadillac, who in 1702 founded the city of Detroit.

On July 29, 1909, Leland sold Cadillac to General Motors for $4.5 million but kept his position as the executive until the year 1917. He developed a self-starter for the Cadillac with the help of Charles Kettering, which consequently won its second Dewar Trophy in 1913. Leland persuaded Kettering to come up with a workable electric starter after an engineer working at Cadillac had been struck in the head by a starting crank upon an engine backfiring, and subsequently died from the incident.

Leland and his son Wilfred later founded The Lincoln Motor Company on 29 August 1917. Leland named his new automobile company after Abraham Lincoln, the first presidential candidate he had voted for. Since the United States was still taking part in World War I, the foremost source of income for the Lincoln Motor Company was military contracts; Lincoln helped assemble engines for Liberty V12 aircraft, using cylinders by Ford Motor Company, along with Marmon, Packard, Buick, and Cadillac.

  • Henry Leland was born on 16 February 1843
  • With Leland’s participation Cadillac Automobile was formed on 22 August 1902
  • Henry Leland sold Cadillac on 29 July 1909
  • Charles Kettering was born on 29 August 1876
  • Henry Leland and his son founded Lincoln on 29 August 1917
The transit heliohoroscope chart for Henry Leland and Cadillac founding
24. The transit heliohoroscope chart for Henry Leland and Cadillac founding: a Jupiter reunion, an Earth—Mercury—Earth line and a Mercury—Mercury—Mars line.
The transit heliohoroscope chart for Henry Leland and Cadillac selling
25. The transit heliohoroscope chart for Henry Leland and Cadillac selling: an alignment of three lines including almost all the planets.
The composite heliohoroscope chart for Henry Leland and Charles Kettering
26. The composite heliohoroscope chart for Henry Leland and Charles Kettering: an Earth—Mercury—Venus line.
The transit heliohoroscope chart for Henry Leland and Lincoln founding
27. The transit heliohoroscope chart for Henry Leland and Lincoln founding: an alignment of three lines including almost all the planets.

Rolls-Royce

Charles Stewart Rolls was a Welsh motoring and aviation pioneer who founded the Rolls-Royce car manufacturing firm with Henry Royce and Claude Johnson.

Sir Frederick Henry Royce, 1st Baronet, OBE was an English engineer and car designer. As previously mentioned, he co-founded the Rolls-Royce company together with Charles Rolls and Claude Johnson.

It eventually became clear that new premises were needed for the production of cars, at which Rolls-Royce Limited was formed, on 15 March 1906. The founders contemplated using sites in Coventry, Manchester, Leicester and Bradford, before finally deciding on Derby after receiving an offer from said site’s council regarding cheap electricity. At the south of the city, the company purchased 12.7 acres. The new factory was mostly designed by Royce, and began its first production at the beginning of 1908, with a formal opening on 9 July 1908, held by Sir John Montagu. It was required that further capital be raised due to the investment in the company, and thus, on December 6, 1906, £100,000 of new shares were presented to the public. Rolls-Royce later bought out C.S. Rolls & Co. in 1907, although Royce Ltd.’s non-motor car related actions continued its independent operation.

  • Charles Rolls was born on 27 August 1877
  • Sir Henry Royce was born on 27 March 1863
  • Sir John Montagu was born on 10 June 1866
  • The formal opening of the Rolls-Royce factory happened on 9 July 1908
The composite heliohoroscope chart for Charles Rolls and Henry Royce
28. The composite heliohoroscope chart for Charles Rolls and Henry Royce: a Venus union, a Mercury—Jupiter solar line, and a Venus—Mercury—Earth line.
The transit heliohoroscope chart for John Montagu when he held a formal opening of the Rolls-Royce factory
29. The transit heliohoroscope chart for John Montagu when he held a formal opening of the Rolls-Royce factory: an exact Venus reunion and a Mars—Mercury—Earth line.

Analysis of the aspects

Out of total 29 heliohoroscope charts, there are 18 transit charts and 11 composite charts. Among the transit charts, 11 charts represent entrepreneurs on the day of their companies foundation. In 6 of them transit Mars is involved in an aspect, and in 10 of them natal Mercury is involved. Among the composite charts, 7 have a rare aspect (union or solar line) involving a social planet (Earth or Venus).

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